This is the standard affiliate marketing structure. In this program, the merchant pays the affiliate a percentage of the sale price of the product after the consumer purchases the product as a result of the affiliate’s marketing strategies. In other words, the affiliate must actually get the investor to invest in the product before they are compensated.

Before the Industrial Revolution most of us were entrepreneurs by default. But the rise of industrialization and its massive factories and bureaucracies required a new kind of employee and managers, which gave birth to our modern education system and the standardization of learning. Today, many of our natural entrepreneurial traits are schooled right out of us to prepare us to be good employees.


Starting an at-home business is a great way to make some money from home. You can set your own hours, take on as much or as little work as you want, and really have some serious control on your time and income. This is a hugely popular job for stay-at-home moms who are willing to do the research into all the different opportunities. These are just a few ideas to get you started:
I did work for a while, and then I got married, but when our first baby came along, we couldn’t really afford for me not to work at all. So I started a small editing business from home, which allowed me to bring in a little cash and keep up my professional skills. After a while, I wanted more regular work, so I started doing online tutoring. I set my hours around my husband’s schedule, and it all worked well.

Some call it savvy, others wit or acumen. Ultimately it boils down to understanding; understanding how the systems you are operating in work. Whether that is your area of expertise, other related areas or wider structural systems such as legislative frameworks or the economy, it is important to know how to manage them and how they can affect your business.
Content marketing is more than just blogging. When executed correctly, content including articles, guides (like this one), webinars, and videos can be powerful growth drivers for your business. Focus on building trust and producing amazing quality. And most of all, make sure that you’re capturing the right metrics. Create content to generate ROI. Measure the right results. This chapter will teach you how.

Most businesses require startup fees as well as a cash flow to finance the products being sold. However, affiliate marketing can be done at a low cost, meaning you can get started quickly and without much hassle. There are no affiliate program fees to worry about and no need to create a product. Beginning this line of work is relatively straightforward.


An influencer is an individual who holds the power to impact the purchasing decisions of a large segment of the population. This person is in a great position to benefit from affiliate marketing. They already boast an impressive following, so it’s easy for them to direct consumers to the seller’s products through social media posts, blogs, and other interactions with their followers. The influencers then receive a share of the profits they helped to create.
Professor of psychology at Arizona State University, Suniya S. Luthar, Ph.D., examined the work-life satisfaction in new mothers. Her research shows the most satisfied are those who wanted to go back to work and did, as well as those who wanted to stay at home and did. The study didn't address WAHMs, but she says from her own parenting experience, being a WAHM is “just not doable. It’s a distraction. One ear is always listening for them. The kid is looking for mom to feel safe…. You’re not going to get your work done properly, and you’ll end up being a mass of nerves and guilt.”
Since you’re essentially a freelancer, you get ultimate independence in setting your own goals, redirecting your path when you feel so inclined, choosing the products that interest you, and even determining your own hours. This convenience means you can diversify your portfolio if you like or focus solely on simple and straightforward campaigns. You’ll also be free from company restrictions and regulations as well as ill-performing teams.
Technological advancements in this new industry have created an accelerated environment, where what was true last month may not remain true in the next. We know that the future of the industry is heading towards hyperconnectivity, hyper-focused marketing, and hyper-relevant content, and as we bear witness over the next 30 years of THE GRAND DIGITAL MARKETING CONVERGENCE, we will see many changes in the definition of what it means to be a marketer, designer, SEO consultant, media buyer, social media manager and countless other job titles commonly associated with this industry.

Here at Cyberset you will find a capable team of professionals who are consummate experts in their respective fields. Because of the diverse array of specialties assembled here under one roof, we are able to provide a wide array of services to our clients. From comprehensive web development to Search Engine Optimization (SEO), full-service IT support, and much more, Cyberset is your one-stop shopping destination for all your Internet marketing and information technology needs. Please click through any of the icons below to find more details on world-class services available from Cyberset. We also encourage you to contact us directly with questions at 818-883-7277.
Balancing search and display for digital display ads are important; marketers tend to look at the last search and attribute all of the effectiveness to this. This then disregards other marketing efforts, which establish brand value within the consumers mind. ComScore determined through drawing on data online, produced by over one hundred multichannel retailers that digital display marketing poses strengths when compared with or positioned alongside, paid search (Whiteside, 2016).[42] This is why it is advised that when someone clicks on a display ad the company opens a landing page, not its home page. A landing page typically has something to draw the customer in to search beyond this page. Things such as free offers that the consumer can obtain through giving the company contact information so that they can use retargeting communication strategies (Square2Marketing, 2012).[43] Commonly marketers see increased sales among people exposed to a search ad. But the fact of how many people you can reach with a display campaign compared to a search campaign should be considered. Multichannel retailers have an increased reach if the display is considered in synergy with search campaigns. Overall both search and display aspects are valued as display campaigns build awareness for the brand so that more people are likely to click on these digital ads when running a search campaign (Whiteside, 2016).[42]
Whether you want to utilize digital content to market your brand or to create digital media to sell, you can take some of the concepts of these digital media experts and apply them to your own business. Just remember that there is no exact method to success. The key to success is to create your own business from your unique ideas and use the concepts and tools that work best for you.
Working Solutions hires independent contractor home-agents to provide sales, technical support and customer service. Home agents can put their experience to work and enjoy the freedom of working when they want, where they want. They select highly educated, experienced professionals with product knowledge, certifications and industry experience to match our clients’ business needs. They never charge any fees. Home-agents earn anywhere from $8.00 -$20.00 per hour, depending on the program.
Game advertising - In-Game advertising is defined as "inclusion of products or brands within a digital game."[50] The game allows brands or products to place ads within their game, either in a subtle manner or in the form of an advertisement banner. There are many factors that exist in whether brands are successful in their advertising of their brand/product, these being: Type of game, technical platform, 3-D and 4-D technology, game genre, congruity of brand and game, prominence of advertising within the game. Individual factors consist of attitudes towards placement advertisements, game involvement, product involvement, flow or entertainment. The attitude towards the advertising also takes into account not only the message shown but also the attitude towards the game. Dependent of how enjoyable the game is will determine how the brand is perceived, meaning if the game isn't very enjoyable the consumer may subconsciously have a negative attitude towards the brand/product being advertised. In terms of Integrated Marketing Communication "integration of advertising in digital games into the general advertising, communication, and marketing strategy of the firm"[50] is an important as it results in a more clarity about the brand/product and creates a larger overall effect.
But being a WAHM still felt like my best option. Even if both my partner and I had full-time jobs, we would barely scrape by paying for day care, which costs about $1,500 to $2,400 a month in Boston, where we live. My partner works 40 hours a week at a UPS store, then comes home to do housework and play with our son. I do a lot of the unpaid, unseen work—shopping, paying bills, scheduling our lives, and managing mundane child care duties. When our son is sick, I take off from the work I didn’t get done and stay up at night.

Tutoring. My friend Jenny tapped into a high-income community and used her teaching background to earn $40/hour helping with homework. The real money came when she bundled three kids together for group homework sessions, charging each family $25/hr. That’s $75 for an hour of work that can be done while your baby naps. Or, while you pay a teenager $10 to watch the baby in another room. This is one of those work at home jobs for moms that can be both financially beneficial and personally rewarding as you help children learn. There is an online community of tutors so that you can do tutoring over the phone and online. Check out Who Teaches to become an online tutor.

This is the standard affiliate marketing structure. In this program, the merchant pays the affiliate a percentage of the sale price of the product after the consumer purchases the product as a result of the affiliate’s marketing strategies. In other words, the affiliate must actually get the investor to invest in the product before they are compensated.
With an enviable practice environment filled with luxurious elements, Dr. Ridha wanted a website that was, itself, a luxurious environment. His site properly reflects his diligent, cutting-edge nature, with a bevy of features that bring him firmly into the here and now. With beautiful form must also come beautiful function, and his site performs exceptionally well.
Employment Options – Job seekers on SSDI or SSI can apply on their website to get started and their staff will follow-up within two business days to review the application. They also offer free national online job fairs and career skills webinars during the year that are open to the entire general public! They have been helping job seekers with disabilities and other challenges for over 20 years.
Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format, which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer. In the United Kingdom, the IAB Affiliate Council under chair Matt Bailey announced regulations[46] that stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be."
Once you’ve established the fundamentals of technology entrepreneurship  you are guided through how to sell, market and scale your new technology startup. NovoEd has recently teamed up with the prestigious Babson Global Entrepreneurship program to offer a whole range of entrepreneurship-focused courses. I highly recommend browsing the NovoEd website for their other entrepreneurship course offerings.

Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]
Developing and monetizing microsites can also garner a serious amount of sales. These sites are advertised within a partner site or on the sponsored listings of a search engine. They are distinct and separate from the organization’s main site. By offering more focused, relevant content to a specific audience, microsites lead to increased conversions due to their simple and straightforward call to action.
With brands using the Internet space to reach their target customers; digital marketing has become a beneficial career option as well. At present, companies are more into hiring individuals familiar in implementing digital marketing strategies and this has led the stream to become a preferred choice amongst individuals inspiring institutes to come up and offer professional courses in Digital Marketing.
The professional team here at Cyberset has worked hard to earn a reputation as a leading Internet marketing company. We are a pioneer in Internet marketing because we are never content to rest on our laurels; we are always looking for new and innovative ways to offer our clients more for less. If our large and growing base of loyal clientele is any indication, we have more than lived up to that promise. As more satisfied clients recommend our services, more businesses are contacting us to learn about how to take advantage of our wealth of expertise and experience. When it comes to finding an Internet marketing company, don't settle for less than the very best.

The new digital era has enabled brands to selectively target their customers that may potentially be interested in their brand or based on previous browsing interests. Businesses can now use social media to select the age range, location, gender and interests of whom they would like their targeted post to be seen by. Furthermore, based on a customer's recent search history they can be ‘followed’ on the internet so they see advertisements from similar brands, products and services,[38] This allows businesses to target the specific customers that they know and feel will most benefit from their product or service, something that had limited capabilities up until the digital era.
Shifting the focus to the time span, we may need to measure some "Interim Metrics", which give us some insight during the journey itself, as well as we need to measure some "Final Metrics" at the end of the journey to inform use if the overall initiative was successful or not. As an example, most of social media metrics and indicators such as likes, shares and engagement comments may be classified as interim metrics while the final increase/decrease in sales volume is clearly from the final category.

I am a teacher & mom but just started as an Independent Consultant for Jamberry Nails in October! love it and love the wraps! Jamberry is a family and my team is a sisterhood….we support each other, assist each other and lift each other up! We have one of the top compensation plans in direct sales! You are your own boss…work when you want! It’s Jamazing!


Joanna Penn was a self-proclaimed “cubicle slave” who had a nagging feeling that she “should” be happy with her life, even though she wasn’t. So many digital entrepreneurs face similar feelings on their path to freedom. How did Joanna get from there to where she is now as a very successful, bestselling author entrepreneur? In this episode, Joanna shares her digital entrepreneur origin story.
The home healthcare recruiter is responsible for delivering all facets of recruiting success throughout the organization. Other critical components of the position include the development of local- and national-recruiting plans, employing traditional sourcing strategies and resources, and developing new and creative recruiting ideas. You’ll need a bachelor’s or equivalent degree to apply for this job, as well as previous experience in staffing positions that match the job requirements, a good understanding of the healthcare industry, and extensive experience in recruiting, HR and compliance issues.
The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]
The new digital era has enabled brands to selectively target their customers that may potentially be interested in their brand or based on previous browsing interests. Businesses can now use social media to select the age range, location, gender and interests of whom they would like their targeted post to be seen by. Furthermore, based on a customer's recent search history they can be ‘followed’ on the internet so they see advertisements from similar brands, products and services,[38] This allows businesses to target the specific customers that they know and feel will most benefit from their product or service, something that had limited capabilities up until the digital era.

There are a number of ways brands can use digital marketing to benefit their marketing efforts. The use of digital marketing in the digital era not only allows for brands to market their products and services, but also allows for online customer support through 24/7 services to make customers feel supported and valued. The use of social media interaction allows brands to receive both positive and negative feedback from their customers as well as determining what media platforms work well for them. As such, digital marketing has become an increased advantage for brands and businesses. It is now common for consumers to post feedback online through social media sources, blogs and websites on their experience with a product or brand.[25] It has become increasingly popular for businesses to use and encourage these conversations through their social media channels to have direct contact with the customers and manage the feedback they receive appropriately.
Providing general to specific knowledge about a product or service can make or break a sale. Everyone will try to sell but, the most convincing argument is probably the most informative. Most people associate the level of expertise with quantity and quality of verifiable knowledge, it instills confidence in consumers. This strategy is consonant, now more than ever, with SEO, websites with more content receive higher rankings, because people spend more time on them, in addition, to the word tag frequency.
Do you have a flair for fashion? Do your friends always compliment you on your amazing sense of style? If so, becoming an online stylist could be your calling. Many upscale fashion subscription boxes are offering the services of a personal stylist to help them create individualized and professionally curated boxes. Use your skills for profit and help others improve their wardrobe at the same time.
If you are proficient in a second language, becoming a document translator is an option you should definitely consider. Not only would this job pay more because of your unique qualifications, it will also help you to maintain and improve your language skills. There are job opportunities in a wide variety of industries that require document translation into other languages, and this is a job that can be easily done at home.
Can you make money with affiliate marketing? The short answer is yes, affiliate programs can earn a extra money and even a full-time income from home. The long answer is a little more complicated. Like any home income venture, success comes not so much from what you choose to do to make money, but whether or not you do what needs to be done correctly and consistently.
Avon – At a time when opportunities are scarce, and finances are tight, you can start an AVON business and EMPOWER your life. As the world’s largest direct selling company and leader in beauty, anti-aging skincare, and fragrances, we make it easy for you to sell and succeed, right from the start. Why Sell AVON? You have your own business; You set your own hours, You determine your family/work/lifestyle balance, Minimum start-up investment, No inventory required, and Exclusive Avon Opportunities. See why more than 5 million people around the world are enjoying financial success and personal growth as Avon Sales Representatives. Join today!
Our backgrounds are as diverse as they come, bringing knowledge and expertise in business, finance, search marketing, analytics, PR, content creation, creative, and more. Our leadership team is comprised of successful entrepreneurs, business executives, athletes, military combat veterans, and marketing experts. The Executives, Directors, and Managers at IMI are all well-respected thought leaders in the space and are the driving force behind the company’s ongoing success and growth.
Keeping tabs on what worked and what didn’t will help you decide not only how to strategize in the future, but which brands or vendors to continue doing business with. In the same way freelancers keep books and records of which publishers or editors they enjoyed working with, affiliates have the independence to reroute later on if they don’t end up enjoying certain brands or products.
When I was starting my first business, I was wondering if entrepreneurs used any tools to make their life better. Despite having no experience, I was convinced that they had some magic tools that could boost their productivity and make their ventures easier. After a while, I realised there is nothing magical to them but they can make your work easier and increase your productivity. For that reason,  I’m quite happy to share those with you. Some of them are obvious, some are less known.
We have a saying that “good data” is better than “big data.” Bid data is a term being thrown around a lot these days because brands and agencies alike now have the technology to collect more data and intelligence than ever before. But what does that mean for growing a business. Data is worthless without the data scientists analyzing it and creating actionable insights. We help our client partners sift through the data to gleam what matters most and what will aid them in attaining their goals.
If you don't learn to keep your roles as mom and businesswoman separate, giving each your full concentration for a set amount of time, you'll never feel like you're doing either well. To separate mentally from the rest of the house, set up a private office area, recommends Lauren Kohl, an attorney and mom of two in Newton, Massachusetts. She works out of a converted closet, a kid-free zone that helps her to detach from the rest of her house. If she can't see the dirty rompers in the hamper, she's less inclined to leave her desk to launder them, she says. Plus, it helps you disengage from your job if you have a door to close. If you don't have an office, try making a list of everything you're going to do the next day, leave it in your work space, and walk away. "You're doing something to turn work off," says Durst.
Secret Shopper. Big companies need real consumers to walk into a store and see how their product is displayed on the shelf. A couple of apps — Rewardable and Gigwalk — enable moms to complete those tasks for a few dollars. Yes, really, set your expectations that it’s just a few dollars, but hey, maybe you’ll be pleasantly surprised. Or maybe you were going to Home Depot anyway, so snapping a picture of the Rustoleum display for $4 is no skin off your back. Expect to get paid via PayPal.
In the past, large affiliates were the mainstay, as catch-all coupon and media sites gave traffic to hundreds or thousands of advertisers. This is not so much the case anymore. With consumers using long-tail keywords and searching for very specific products and services, influencers can leverage their hyper-focused niche for affiliate marketing success. Influencers may not send advertisers huge amounts of traffic, but the audience they do send is credible, targeted, and has higher conversion rates. 
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor, approximately 21% of employees work from home on an average day. I’m sure a significant proportion of these people are mothers who are taking care of their children simultaneously. It can be hard to juggle so many responsibilities, but the key to making it work is finding a job with the perfect fit – one that has built-in flexibility, reasonable compensation and engages all of your greatest strengths.
Being a work-from-home mom means nothing ever gets your full attention. You walk by the dishes while chatting with your boss and think to yourself: “Ah, let me empty that dish rack." You make beds, throw in a load of laundry, cut chicken, wash dishes, scrub the bathtub—sometimes all in a day’s work. It feels like you’re working two jobs at once. And it's grueling.
Our backgrounds are as diverse as they come, bringing knowledge and expertise in business, finance, search marketing, analytics, PR, content creation, creative, and more. Our leadership team is comprised of successful entrepreneurs, business executives, athletes, military combat veterans, and marketing experts. The Executives, Directors, and Managers at IMI are all well-respected thought leaders in the space and are the driving force behind the company’s ongoing success and growth.
Learning doesn’t only happen in a traditional classroom setting. Education is one of the most popular work-from-home jobs out there, allowing teachers and educators alike the opportunity to school students from anywhere in the country—and frankly, the world. For this full-time remote job, you’ll work one on one with students virtually offering math tutoring in geometry, trigonometry, precalculus, AP statistics, and so on via iPad and iPhone applications. You’ll need to have a bachelor’s degree and a current teaching license to apply for this position. 
If we look at Facebook again, what strikes us most is how the company is adapting in order to accomplish its goals. As a result of shifting user behaviour and needs, which are reflected in mountains of complex data available only to Facebook big data scientists, we see constant updates and changes, news feed tweaks, and a fast growing number of ways to advertise.
Probably, you have noticed several advertisements posted on local or even national newspapers of different companies that are in need of employees. Definitely, several to hundred thousands of individuals will respond to this job vacancy advertisements, getting into interview, yet a small percentage will get hired. On the other hand, there are thousands of workers who are getting laid off and add to the growing number of unemployed population. They will undergo the same old process, trying their luck in getting employed.
But there is one scenario that these numbers cannot possibly reflect — the number of moms who have successfully launched part-time businesses or side hustles out of their homes. Although there is no hard data on those numbers, more than 8.6 million U.S. businesses are owned by women. Undoubtedly, many of those businesses are run by mothers who manage their businesses’ affairs while also keeping an eye on the kids.
In 2019, we may also see these fonts and colors taking the place of images. This makes sense for mobile especially. Unlike images, which slow pages down, scaling the size of your typography won’t impact performance. It also creates cleaner lines on your page that helps your calls-to-action pop. Large buttons, hero images, and clickable images are going out of style and making way for large typographic expressions. 

A recent study found that moms are spending too much time with their kids. The Mommy Wars pressures make stay-at-home moms feel like they're not a worthy member of society while making working moms feel like they're not spending enough time with their children. While the study above says moms are spending too much time with their kids with no scientifically proven difference in their outcomes, a Highland Spring study of 10,000 families revealed parents are only spending 34 uninterrupted minutes a day with their children because of the stresses of daily life.
Upselling is a sales technique where the salesperson encourages a more expensive purchase by a customer by persuading them to get an upgraded version of an item or to purchase add-ons. Remember our food processor example? That food processor could probably be best used with a book of recipes, which also can be purchased at the same company’s website.

When beginning your affiliate marketing career, you’ll want to cultivate an audience that has very specific interests. This allows you to tailor your affiliate campaigns to that niche, increasing the likelihood that you’ll convert. By establishing yourself as an expert in one area instead of promoting a large array of products, you’ll be able to market to the people most likely to buy the product.
Tech City UK, the organisation that promotes the growth of the UK’s digital tech sector, offers the Digital Business Academy (DBA), a free online college covering a range of topics including marketing, entrepreneurship, product development and financials. The programme was recently redesigned into 56 bitesize courses that are optimised for mobile and take 15 minutes to complete. Students can choose the exact skills they want for their particular business goals.

But something that you can start thinking about is virtual environments where business is transacted in new and different ways that could possibly be done with the evolving and more powerful websites that we have these days. We’ll talk about that in just a minute, but I’m really interested in it. I’m not sure I have all the answers, but it is something that I’m intellectually attuned to and paying attention to.
As an internationally recognized Search Engine Marketing agency, we have the team, technology, and skills to manage large budget PPC campaigns with thousands of keywords. We have the ability to manage enterprise level accounts in multiple languages. IMI is also partner with Marin Software to provide our clients with the best possible advertising management platform, reporting dashboard, attribution modeling, and reporting.

The amount of services that can be done from your own home is unlimited. Review your personal and professional talents, and interests to determine if any can be turned into a service that you can provide virtually. Some service ideas include writing, editing, and proofreading, reviewing legal documents, bookkeeping, graphic design, virtual support, and more. In fact, in many cases you can take duties you did in a job and turn it into a home business. You can focus on offering services to the general public (B2C), such as tutoring, or to other businesses (B2B), such as web design or marketing.


I am a STAM working 3 jobs… all part time and from home… (can u believe it?) But really, I started with the mystery shopping, and that was OK. The positive was you get paid, the challenge was not frequently and sometimes needed to wait a month for payment to be transferred to the paypal account. Then I became and infant massage teacher and love this. REDTENTSALE is my Ebay store, I sell so many various items I find from wholesellers and it’s nice, I do this when the kids are asleep; anyone can… very manageable and nice “but light” income. I would say the one by far that is taking me places is Real Estate Marketing.


ClickWorker is an online platform where you can get paid for writing, translating, researching and collecting data. To get started, create an account, fill out your profile, complete a qualification assessment, then bid on jobs. Payments are made by SEPA bank account transfers, and via PayPal once your account reaches $1.00, and your tax information has been completed. ClickWorker’s clients include Groupon, Tennis Point, Honda, PayPal among others.
Many affiliate programs run with last-click attribution, where the affiliate receiving the last click before the sale gets 100% credit for the conversion. This is changing. With affiliate platforms providing new attribution models and reporting features, you are able to see a full-funnel, cross-channel view of how individual marketing tactics are working together. For example, you might see that a paid social campaign generated the first click, Affiliate X got click 2, and Affiliate Y got the last click. With this full picture, you can structure your affiliate commissions so that Affiliate X gets a percentage of the credit for the sale, even though they didn’t get the last click. 
Can you make money with affiliate marketing? The short answer is yes, affiliate programs can earn a extra money and even a full-time income from home. The long answer is a little more complicated. Like any home income venture, success comes not so much from what you choose to do to make money, but whether or not you do what needs to be done correctly and consistently.
During my time in Chile, I was inspired by the book The Startup of You by LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha. The book basically argues that to succeed in a rapidly changing world and fiercely competitive global economy we all need to develop entrepreneurial traits and treat our careers like a startup. I think this is excellent advice as the new career trajectory seems to include a mix of salaried employment and project-based contract work.
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